{"meta":{"version":"2.1","images":{"_primary_thumbnail":"https://framemark.vam.ac.uk/collections/2006AU4218/full/!100,100/0/default.jpg","_iiif_image":"https://framemark.vam.ac.uk/collections/2006AU4218/","_alt_iiif_image":[],"imageResolution":"high","_images_meta":[{"assetRef":"2006AU4218","copyright":"© Victoria and Albert Museum, London","sensitiveImage":false}]},"see_also":{"_iiif_pres":"https://iiif.vam.ac.uk/collections/O26291/manifest.json","_alt_iiif_pres":[]}},"record":{"systemNumber":"O26291","accessionNumber":"E.733-1959","objectType":"Board game","titles":[{"title":"An Arithmetical Pastime","type":"manufacturer's title"}],"summaryDescription":"First published in 1791, this race game is 'intended to infuse the rudiments of arithmetic, under the idea of amusement'. There are 100 playing spaces and the game is surrounded by addition, subtraction, multiplication and division tables with directions for their use. The game begins with a thinking man and ends with a laurel wreath. The forfeits are designed to make a player repeat certain tables. Some are obvious, such as the times table, and some less so, the wine measure, for example. Others such as the avoirdupois table (the weights table of ounces and pounds) are obscure today.","physicalDescription":"Design: engraving, coloured by hand; 6 sections mounted on linen, 100 compartments, some numbered some with emblems, diagrams and tables in corners\nNo. of squares: 100\nSquares illustrated: some\nSquare numbering: some\nSquares titled: all\nSubject of starting square: a man thinking\nSubject of ending square: laurel wreath","artistMakerPerson":[{"name":{"text":"Wallis, John","id":"A3724"},"association":{"text":"publisher","id":"AAT25574"},"note":""}],"artistMakerOrganisations":[],"artistMakerPeople":[],"materials":[],"techniques":[],"materialsAndTechniques":"Hand-coloured engraving, mounted on linen","categories":[{"text":"Games","id":"THES48947"}],"styles":[],"collectionCode":{"text":"YVA","id":"THES48593"},"images":["2006AU4218"],"imageResolution":"high","galleryLocations":[{"current":{"text":"CAGE","id":"THES49689"},"free":"","case":"MB5","shelf":"A1","box":"PKG355623"},{"current":{"text":"CAGE","id":"THES49689"},"free":"","case":"MB5","shelf":"A3","box":"PKG355638"}],"partTypes":[[{"text":"Board game","id":""}],[{"text":"Box and parts","id":""}]],"contentWarnings":[{"apprise":"","note":""},{"apprise":"","note":""},{"apprise":"","note":""}],"placesOfOrigin":[{"place":{"text":"London","id":"x28980"},"association":{"text":"published","id":"x30682"},"note":""}],"productionDates":[{"date":{"text":"19/04/1798","earliest":"1798-04-19","latest":"1798-04-19"},"association":{"text":"published","id":"x30682"},"note":""}],"associatedObjects":[],"creditLine":"","dimensions":[{"dimension":"Length","value":"34.4","unit":"cm","qualifier":"","date":{"text":"","earliest":null,"latest":null},"part":"","note":""},{"dimension":"Width","value":"72.3","unit":"cm","qualifier":"","date":{"text":"","earliest":null,"latest":null},"part":"","note":""}],"dimensionsNote":"","marksAndInscriptions":[],"objectHistory":"Re-issued by Edward Wallis, E. 1751-1954\n\nCGG-Games & Puzzles, 1991","historicalContext":"Rewards: forward movement, extra turns\nForfeits: backward movement, missing turns\nNo. of Players: any\nEquipment required: teetotums, pyramid/marker and 4 matching counters - THESE ARE SIMILAR TO TOUR THROUGH ENGLAND AND WALES , AND EUROPE\n\nRules:\nDIRECTIONS\nThe two teetotums must be numbered 0-9. Each player is to be furnished with one pyramid or marker and four round counters of the same colour.\n\nTo learn addition:\nUse but one teetotum, spin it and whatever number it turns up, move your traveller to the space so numbered. Let the other players do the same. When you spin it again, add your fresh number to your former one: thus if your former place was six and your fresh number 5, they together make 11, move there, spinning thus by turns, till one person gets 100. If a player's last spin carries him beyond 100, he does not win, but is to return as many on this side as he had got beyond; thus if his number would carry him to 108, that being 8 too many, he must return to 92, continuing so backwards and forwards, till someone hits the game exactly. Whenever a player comes to a picture, he must look at the list, to see how to proceed. When told to stop 1, 2, or 3 turns, he must put down so many counters, and when his turn comes, instead of spinning, he must take one up.\n\nTo learn subtraction:\nThe general rules of the game are as before, only both teetotums are to be spun. Two numbers will then arise, take the least from the greatest, and move with the remainder. If for instance, the numbers 7 and 4, subtract 4 from 7 and 3 remains, to number 3 you must go; if the next 9 and 5 arise, subtract and 4 remains, which added to you former place brings you to 7.\n\nTo learn multiplication:\nMultiply the two numbers which arise, move with the last figure of their product, neglecting the other: thus if 5 and 9 appear, multiplied they make 45 - use the 5 and neglect the 4.\n\nTo learn division:\nDivide the greatest number which come us by the least, observe how many times the latter is contained in the former and how many remain, add these together and move with their sum. Five and eight are contained one and 3 over; 3 and 1 is 4, move there.\n\nThe compartments containing pictures, such as a cake, tiger, sentry, peacock, are not numbered although they fit into the numerical sequence. The sheet of rules has a list of the penalties or benefits to be gained by a player who lands on a picture.\n\n*First published on December 15th, 1791 by C Taylor and reissued in 1798 by John Wallis. The forfeits refer to repeating sertain tables, some of which are obvious - the times table- and some less so - the wine measure - while others such as the avoirdupois table (weights table of ounces and pounds) are obscure now. In the corners are the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division tables and directions for their use. If a player could not pay the forfeit he or she had the choice of missing turns or moving backwards.\nThe same game was issued in 1798 by John Wallis . Thereafter An Arithmetical Pastime had quite different rules. Two teetotums were required to learn the mathemetical disciplines. The players subtracted the number shown on one teetotum from the number on the other (which ever was greatest), or multiplied the two numbers shown and used the last number of the result for their move, or divided the two numbers and used the result plus the remainder for their move. Used in parallel with these directions were the compartments on the playing sheet. Each had an accompanying verse to be read out and further rewards or forfeits. Thiswas a game that could teach everything-morals, history, geography and arithmetic.\n\nRules placement: to the left side","briefDescription":"Hand coloured mathematical race game, Arithmetic Pastime, published in England by John Wallis in 1798","bibliographicReferences":[],"production":"Previously published by C Taylor in 1791\r\nPrinted by Biggs & Co, Crane Court, Fleet Street","productionType":{"text":"","id":""},"contentDescription":"","contentPlaces":[],"associatedPlaces":[],"contentPerson":[],"associatedPerson":[],"contentOrganisations":[],"associatedOrganisations":[],"contentPeople":[],"associatedPeople":[],"contentEvents":[],"associatedEvents":[],"contentOthers":[],"contentConcepts":[],"contentLiteraryRefs":[],"galleryLabels":[],"partNumbers":["E.733-1959","E.733PART-1959"],"accessionNumberNum":"733","accessionNumberPrefix":"E","accessionYear":1959,"otherNumbers":[],"copyNumber":"","aspects":["WHOLE","Board game","Box and parts"],"assets":[],"recordModificationDate":"2020-03-03","recordCreationDate":"2000-03-04"}}